Saturn V

Maid Appleton @ Saturn V Rocket Park at NASA


Tx Houston Nasa 10

“Welcome ~ National Aeronautics & Space Administration – Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center ~ NASA”



Tx Nasa 3831

“Tram Tour – NASA – Johnson Space Center”



Tx Nasa 3732

“National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark – Saturn V Rocket (1967-1973) ~ The largest rocket built at the time of the historic first missions to the moon, the Saturn V carried aloft the 45-ton Apollo spacecraft on Earth orbital and lunar missions from 1967 to 1972. It also launched the 120-ton Skylab into Earth orbit on May 14, 1973. | Design and fabrication of the Saturn V were carried out by a government/industry team which included the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Boeing Company, North American Rockwell, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, International Business Machines, and their sub-contractors. Many of the design features were outgrowths of the earlier development work accomplished by military service organizations and their contractors. ~ The American Society of Mechanical Engineers -1980”



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Tx Nasa 3522

“Western Heritage Pavilion”



Tx Nasa 3585

“The Little Joe II launch vehicle was used for Apollo spacecraft transonic and high-altitude abort testing at the White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico during 1964-1966, and represented an important milestone in the lunar landing program. It was powered by a variety of solid-propellant rocket motors. In May 1965, this Command Module (CM) boilerplate (BP22) and Launch Escape System (LES) were launched atop a Little Joe II like this one for a high-altitude abort test at White Sands. Twenty-five seconds after liftoff the Little Joe unexpectedly began to break up and destroyed itself at 14,000 feet. The LES sensed the malfunction and fired, boosting this Command Module to 19,000 feet and away from danger, and the parachute system lowered the boilerplate to the desert below. Though unplanned, this emergency demonstrated successfully what the LES was designed to do. During the actual launch of the three-man Apollo CM, the LES was designed to propel the spacecraft and its crew to safety in the event of a Saturn launch vehicle failure on the pad or during powered flight.”



Tx Nasa 3589

“LITTLE JOE II ~ The first major flight tests in the Apollo program were performed by the Little Joe II launch vehicle. These unmanned flights tested the command module launch escape system and qualified it for operational use in the Apollo program. The test series involved five Little Joe II launches at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. | Launch Dates: August 28, 1963 – May 13, 1964 – December 8, 1964 – May 19, 1965 – January 20, 1966 | During its time, the Little Joe II was the most powerful solid rocket launch vehicle in the U.S. inventory, with a maximum total thrust of 816,200 pounds provided by seven Aerojet Algol 1D motors. The trajectory of the vehicle was controlled by varying the launch angle. It was guided by a combination of aerodynamic fins and reaction jets. Atop this Little Joe II is the boilerplate 22 command module, flown on the fourth flight. Little Joe II was designed and manufactured for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration by the General Dynamics Convair Division, San Diego, California.”



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Tx Nasa 3617

“Mercury – Redstone ~ A one-man spacecraft-booster combination like this one propelled the first two American astronauts (Al Shepard and Gus Grissom) into Space in May and July of 1961. Al Shepard’s spacecraft reached an altitude of 101 nautical miles in a ballistic arc above the Earth. The flight lasted about 15-1/2 minutes and Shepard was weightless for over five minutes. The vehicle reached a velocity of over 5,000 miles per hour and landed 236 miles downrange. At liftoff, the vehicle weighed about 66,000 pounds. Propellants included ethyl alcohol, water, and liquid oxygen. A single A-7 engine powered the vehicle into space.”



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Tx Nasa 3606

“Rocket Park”



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Tx Nasa 3627

“Saving America’s Treasures”



Tx Nasa 3628

“The Saturn V Rocket ~ The Saturn V rocket housed in this building is one of three surviving vehicles built to launch American astronauts to the moon during the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s.”



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Tx Nasa 3625

“F-1 Engine ~ A cluster of five engines like these provided the power for the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle during the Apollo-Saturn test flights, manned flights to the Moon, and the launch of the Skylab orbiting laboratory into Earth orbit. | The engines were powered for 2-1/2 minutes lifting the Saturn V to an altitude of about 41 miles and a speed of about 6000 miles per hour. Each engine weighed 15,650 pounds and developed a thrust of 1,500,000 pounds.”



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Tx Nasa 3664

“Apollo 1 ~ Virgil ‘Gus’ Ivan Grissom, commander (LEFT); Edward Higgins White II, command module pilot (MIDDLE); Roger Bruce Chaffee, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3663

“Apollo 7 ~ Mission: 11-22 October 1968 – Walter M. Schirra, commander (MIDDLE); Donn F. Eisele, command module pilot (LEFT); R. Walter Cunningham, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3639

“…it’s a hostile environment, and it’s trying to kill you. The outside temperature goes from a -450 degrees to a +300 degrees. You sit in a flying Thermos bottle.” – Walter M. Schirra (Apollo 7)



Tx Nasa 3641

“Apollo 7 was the only manned Apollo mission launched on a Saturn 1-B rocket and from pad 34 at the Kennedy Space Center. Apollo 7 was the first manned test of the Command-Service Module. The crew orbited the Earth 163 times and spent 10 days and 20 hours in space.”



Tx Nasa 3642

Apollo 7 photos



Tx Nasa 3662

“Apollo 8 ~ Mission: 21-27 December 1968 | Lunar Orbit: 24 December 1968 | Frank Borman, commander (RIGHT); James A. Lovell, command module pilot (MIDDLE); William A. Anders, lunar module pilot (LEFT).”



Tx Nasa 3645

“Apollo 8 was the first mission to take humans to the moon and back. An important prelude to actually landing on the moon was testing the flight trajectory and operations for getting there and back. Apollo 8 did this and achieved many other firsts including the first manned mission launched on the Saturn V, first manned launch from NASA’s new moonport, first pictures taken by humans of the Earth from deep space, and first live TV coverage of the lunar surface.”



Tx Nasa 3646

“We came all this way to explore the moon, and the most important thing is that we discovered the Earth.” – William A. Anders (Apollo 8)



Tx Nasa 3661

“Apollo 9 ~ Mission: 3 – 13 March 1969 | Command Module: Gumdrop | Lunar Module: Spider | James A. McDivitt, commander (LEFT), David R. Scott, command module pilot (MIDDLE), Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3652

“We are going to learn how to relate to the Earth and our own natural environment here by looking seriously at space colony ecologies.” – Russell L. Schweickart (Apollo 9)



Tx Nasa 3650

“Apollo 9 mission objectives were to demonstrate crew, space vehicle and mission support facilities performance during a manned Saturn V mission with the Command-Service Module (CSM) and the Lunar Module (LM); demonstrate LM/crew performance; demonstrate docking, intervehicular crew transfer, extravehicular capability and LM-active rendezvous and docking; and conduct CSM/LM consumables assessment. The Apollo 9 launch was the first Saturn V/Apollo spacecraft in full lunar mission configuration and carried the largest payload ever placed in orbit.”



Tx Nasa 3660

“Apollo 10 ~ Mission: 18-26 May 1969 | Lunar Orbit: 21 May 1969 | Command Module: Charlie Brown | Lunar Module: Snoopy | Thomas P. Stafford, commander (RIGHT); John W. Young, command module pilot (MIDDLE); Eugene Cernan, lunar module pilot (LEFT)”



Tx Nasa 3657

“Twentieth century man must boldly reach out…and purposefully strive to discover the hidden secrets of our universe.” – John W. Young (Apollo 10)



Tx Nasa 3655

“Apollo 10 was a ‘dress rehearsal’ for the landing missions that would follow and, as such, it was a fully configured spacecraft. Unlike the previous orbiter mission, Apollo 8, which carried an equivalent mockup Lunar Module test article to establish the weight factor, this mission included a functional Lunar Module. This was necessary in order to test descent and return operations, which were the objectives of the mission.”



Tx Nasa 3658

“Apollo 11 ~ Mission:16-24 July 1969 | Landed on Moon: 20 July 1969 | Landing Site: Mare Tranquillitatis – Sea of Tranquility | Command Module: Columbia | Lunar Module: Eagle | Neil A. Armstrong, commander (LEFT); Michael Collins, command module pilot (MIDDLE); Edwin E. ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, Jr, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3672

“Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” – Neil A. Armstrong (Apollo 11)



Tx Nasa 3669

“Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the moon. The first steps by humans on another planetary body were taken by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, 1969. The astronauts also returned to Earth the first samples from another planetary body. Apollo 11 achieved its primary mission – to perform a manned lunar landing and return the mission safely to Earth – and paved the way for the Apollo lunar landing missions to follow.”



Tx Nasa 3668

“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969, A.D. WE CAME IN PEACE FOR ALL MANKIND.” – Apollo 11 plaque left on the moon.



Tx Nasa 3673

“Apollo 12 ~ Mission: 14-24 November 1969 | Landed on Moon: 19 November 1969 | Landing Site: Oceanus Procellarum – Ocean of Storms | Command Module: Yankee Clipper | Lunar Module: Intrepid | Charles Conrad Jr., commander (LEFT); Richard F. Gordon, command module pilot (MIDDLE); Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3679

“In thinking back to when we had our big glitch, I remember seeing it get light outside the window. We were in the clouds; I’m pretty sure we got hit by lightning.” – Charles Conrad Jr. (Apollo 12)



Tx Nasa 3678

“Apollo 12 was planned and executed as a precision landing. The astronauts landed the Lunar Module (LM) within walking distance of the Surveyor III spacecraft which had landed on the moon in April of 1967. The astronauts brought instruments from Surveyor III back to Earth to examine the effects of long-term exposure to the lunar environment. After leaving the moon, the LM crashed into the lunar surface, creating the first recorded artificial earthquake. At launch from Earth, the team had a scare when lightning struck the ascending Saturn V and tripped virtually all the circuit breakers in the Command Module. In a matter of minutes, they had everything back online. The flight to the moon and the preparations for the descent were otherwise unremarkable.”



Tx Nasa 3681

“Apollo 13 ~ Launched: 11-17 April 1970 | Malfunction forced cancellation of lunar landing | Command Module: Odyssey | Lunar Module: Aquarius | James A. Lovell, Jr., commander (LEFT); John L. Swigert, Jr., command module pilot (MIDDLE); Fred W. Haise, Jr., lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3686

“Hey Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” – James A. Lovell, Jr.  (Apollo 13)



Tx Nasa 3683

“Apollo 13 was to be the third mission to land on the moon. An explosion in one of the oxygen tanks crippled the spacecraft during flight and the crew was forced to orbit the moon without making the planned landing. They returned safely to Earth. | This was the only Apollo mission aborted after launch, and marked the only use of a Lunar Module to provide emergency propulsion and life support after loss of the Service Module System.”



Tx Nasa 3687

“Apollo 14 ~ Mission: 31 January – 9 February 1971 | Landed on Moon: 5 February 1971 | Landing Site: Fra Mauro | Command Module: Kitty Hawk | Lunar Module: Antares | Alan B. Shepard, Jr., commander (MIDDLE); Stuart A. Rootsa, command module pilot (LEFT); Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3692

“…when I first looked back at the Earth, standing on the moon, I cried.” – Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (Apollo 14)



Tx Nasa 3690

“Apollo 14 landed in the Fra Mauro region, the intended landing site of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. The astronauts used the Modularized Equipment Transporter to haul equipment during two extravehicular activities (EVAs). Later missions would use the Lunar Roving Vehicle. | At the end of the second EVA, Apollo 14 Commander Alan Shephard hit two golf balls on the moon.”



Tx Nasa 3689

Apollo 14



Tx Nasa 3693

“Apollo 15 ~ Mission 26 July – 7 August 1971 | Landed on Moon: 30 July 1971 | Landing Site: Hadley Rille/Apennine | Command Module: Endeavor | Lunar Module: Falcon | David R. Scott, commander (LEFT); Alfred W. Worden, command module pilot (MIDDLE); James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa 3695

Apollo 15 photos



Tx Nasa 3697

Apollo 15 photos



Tx Nasa 3696

“Apollo 15 was the fourth mission to land men on the moon. This mission was the first flight of the Lunar Roving Vehicle, which astronauts used to explore the geology of the Hadley Rille/Apennine region. It was discovered from a tiny returned sample that the moon was a piece of Earth’s mantle blown out during a collision with another object.”



Tx Nasa 3737

Apollo 15 and Apollo 16



Tx Nasa 3702

“Apollo 16 ~ Mission: 16-27 April 1972 | Landed on Moon: 21 April 1972 | Landing Site: Descartes | Command Module: Casper | Lunar Module: Orion | John W. Young, commander (MIDDLE); Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot (LEFT); Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot (RIGHT)”



Tx Nasa Info 3707

“I’m proud to be an American, I’ll tell you. What a program and what a place and what an experience.” – Charles M. Duke, Jr. (Apollo 16)



Tx Nasa 3705

“Apollo 16 was the fifth mission to land man on the moon and return them to Earth. It was also the second flight of the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Apollo 16 landed in a highlands area, a region not yet explored on the moon. Astronauts collected samples, took photographs and conducted experiments that included the first use of an ultraviolet camera/spectograph on the moon. On this flight, astronaut Thomas Mattingly got his turn on the moon after being sidelined on Apollo 13 for a possible measles exposure.”



Tx Nasa 3709

“Apollo 17 ~ Mission: 7-19 December 1972 | Landed on Moon: 11 December 1972 | Landing Site: Taurus-Littrow | Command Module: America | Lunar Module: Challenger | Eugene A. Cernan, commander (FRONT); Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot (BACK RIGHT); Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot (BACK)”



Tx Nasa 3712

“Apollo 17 was the last Apollo mission to land men on the moon. It carried the only trained geologist to walk on the lunar surface, Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt. Compared to previous Apollo missions, Apollo 17 astronauts traversed the greatest distance using the Lunar Roving Vehicle and returned the greatest amount of rock and soil samples.”



Tx Nasa 3630

“An Endangered Historic Icon ~ One of the largest and most significant artifacts in the collection of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum, the Saturn V has been displayed near the entrance to the NASA Johnson Space Center since 1977. Over the years, exposure to Houston’s wildlife and climate, with its high humidity, temperatures, and ozone concentrations, salt air, and chemical pollution, caused extensive corrosion of the rocket’s metals and degradation of other materials. As the year 2000 approached, it became apparent that the Saturn V required significant treatment if it was to survive into the 21st century. | The Preservation Effort ~ In 1999, the National Air and Space Museum applied for a grant through the Save America’s Treasures program, the centerpiece of the White House National Millenium Commemoration. The Museum received funds through the National Park Service to begin preserving the Saturn V. The goal: to halt its deterioration and return it to a condition matching as closely as possible the way it would have appeared on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center. The Museum contracted with an experience private firm, Conservation Solutions, Inc. Working with scientists, engineers, curators, industry professionals, and conservation specialists, the company applied on an unprecedented scale the ethics and standards of historic preservation to modern aerospace materials. The project team erected a climate-controlled building to house the rocket, designed and executed a testing program to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning and repair treatments, developed a data management system for recording and retrieving information gathered during the project, and stabilized and conserved the Saturn V to arrest its deterioration and make it suitable for display.”



Tx Nasa 3714

“That last footprint on the moon? Check it out. It’s my boot size.” – Eugene A. Cernan (Apollo 17)



Tx Nasa 3700

“For when I look at the moon I do not see a hostile, empty world. I see the radiant body where man has taken his first steps into a frontier that will never end.” – David R. Scott (Apollo 9 and Apollo 15)



Tx Nasa 3704

Apollo 16 photos



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Tx Nasa 3711

Apollo 17 photos



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Tx Nasa 3716

“We leave as we came, and God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind.” – Eugene Cernan, Commander of the last Apollo mission



Tx Nasa 3728

“The possibilities are limited only by our imagination and determination, and not by physics.” – Mike Duke



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